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How to Write In-Text Citations in APA Format: Demystifying In-Text Citations into 4 Patterns

On The Tao of Graduate School

Ah, yes, citing sources, the great bane of undergraduate students and the great headache of graduate students. When the stuff you write is based on other stuff, you need to cite. Most likely, your professor/department asks you to cite that stuff using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style or the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style. Your discipline may have its own citation style (e.g., American Political Science Association; American Anthropological Association). Whatever the style, it can be a headache for new and returning graduate students.

Why does citation give people so much trouble? I foresee two reasons why citation evokes such bad vibes.

Reference Pages Are No Longer the Big Concern

During my undergraduate career, it was the dreaded reference page (APA) and the Works Cited page (MLA) that was difficult. Remembering where to put the commas, the periods, the order of authors, the editors, yada yada made it an absolute nightmare to type out in hand.

choose the crown: what disney teaches us about good and evil

On Life, Happening Now

Growing up, we all watched disney movies and dreamt of being princesses and princes. Girls dream of having a perfect body and being independent like Ariel, or having the majestic personality of Cinderella. Personally, I always dreamt of having the booming poise and personality of a king like Ariel's dad, King Triton.

But there were the evil characters that always wanted to rob, steal from and destroy both our favorite characters, too. Ursula was a "destroyer of souls". Jafar always tried to take out Aladdin by putting stumbling blocks in his way. Scar used deception to convince young Simba that he was responsible for his father's death, in an effort to get him alone so that he can kill him and take his throne.

But as children, we don't grow up admiring the evil characters in Disney movies. Why? Because the innocence, vulnerability, and freedom of childhood are embedded into the design of how we were created to experience this life. They're part of the internal mechanism that draws us toward our genuine life - a life of freedom. From the day we are born, we don't model ourselves after the evil of the world. Those characters are always the ugly, powerless, and dying ones. We are drawn to the beauty, the crown and the life.

Your Crown Comes with A Fight

Aladdin is a street rat that has a dirty pet monkey, and Jasmine is "not allowed to marry anyone other than a prince." But Aladdin still overcomes injustices and setbacks in order win Princess Jasmine's hand and become a prince. He didn't have to qualify for her love - she loved him regardless of his status or looks. And he didn't second guess that either - after all he used her love as motivation to fight. But, he did have to develop perseverance by overcoming circumstance before he got the crown. Sure, he had 3 wishes from the genie that helped him, but those wishes didn't happen overnight. He encountered setbacks that tried to take him out. But with the persistence of love in his heart, Aladdin fought the good fight until the end and eventually got his crown.

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