Read Next

Does anybody remember why governments started Lotteries?

On The Lottery

In the beginning

The first recorded signs of a lottery are keno slips from the Chinese Han Dynasty between 205 and 187 BC. These lotteries are believed to have helped to finance major government projects like the Great Wall of China. From the Chinese "The Book of Songs" (2nd millennium BC.) comes a reference to a game of chance as "the drawing of wood", which in context appears to describe the drawing of lots. From the Celtic era, the Cornish words "teulel pren" translates into "to throw wood" and means "to draw lots". The Iliad of Homer refers to lots being placed into Agamemnon's helmet to determine who would fight Hector.

The first known European lotteries were held during the Roman Empire, mainly as an amusement at dinner parties. Each guest would receive a ticket, and prizes would often consist of fancy items such as dinnerware. Every ticket holder would be assured of winning something. This type of lottery, however, was no more than the distribution of gifts by wealthy noblemen during the Saturnalian revelries. The earliest records of a lottery offering tickets for sale is the lottery organized by Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. The funds were for repairs in the City of Rome, and the winners were given prizes in the form of articles of unequal value.

The first recorded lotteries to offer tickets for sale with prizes in the form of money were held in the Low Countries in the 15th century. Various towns held public lotteries to raise money for town fortifications, and to help the poor. The town records of Ghent, Utrecht, and Bruges indicate that lotteries may be even older. A record dated May 9, 1445 at L'Ecluse refers to raising funds to build walls and town fortifications, with a lottery of 4,304 tickets and total prize money of 1737 florins.[1] In the 17th century it was quite usual in the Netherlands to organize lotteries to collect money for the poor or in order to raise funds for all kinds of public usages. The lotteries proved very popular and were hailed as a painless form of taxation. The Dutch state-owned Staatsloterij is the oldest running lottery.

Lifting in Chucks

On minimalift

Lloyd asks: do friends let friends lift in Chucks?

A good pair of weightlifting shoes is the most essential purchase for any serious lifter. This is not the area to skimp. Go for the top end and buy the best quality. Same goes for barbells, for that matter. I own three pairs of shoes and expect they will last me for the next 30 years. Think of your weightlifting shoes as lifetime investments.

I lifted in Chuck Taylors (Converse All Stars) for some weeks when I first started lifting. It's not great but safer than anything with a squashy heel. Friends do not let friends lift in running shoes or with small plates or bits of wood propping up their heels. Much as I love Dave Draper and Arnold those old photos gave a lot of people the wrong idea.

I know some powerlifters who use low and high ankle Chucks. It seemed to suit their squatting style and they were well strong. Never mind those brutes though; if you want to be a weightlifter you need weightlifting shoes. I like the ones that have a wooden heel and can be resoled. Some of the cheaper models out today will begin to compress under big weight, so be aware of that.

My favourite shoe makes: Adidas Adistar 00, 04, 08, Adidas Ironwork II, III, Asics TOW727, Risto. Round these parts getting hold of any of these will be an expensive mission, so find a reputable cobbler and have them build something similar.

Rendering New Theme...